Chemistry Curriculum Map

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NGSS Chemistry Curriculum Map

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NGSS Chemistry Curriculum Map

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NGSS Chemistry Pacing Guide

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NGSS Chemistry Pacing Guide

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Unit 1: Structure and Properties of Matter

( FREE Sample Unit )

Unit 2: Chemical Reactions

  • 2-1  Atomic Combinations
  • 2-2  Covalent Bonding
  • 2-3  Ionic Bonding
  • 2-4  Metallic Bonding
  • 2-5  Writing Chemical Formula
  • 2-6  Molecular Shape and the VSEPR Theory

Unit 3: Changes in Matter

  • 3-1  Physical and Chemical Change
  • 3-2  Conservation of Energy in Chemical Reactions
  • 3-3  Conservation of Mass in Chemical Reactions
  • 3-4  Law of Constant Composition
  • 3-5  Chemical Change Representation
  • 3-6  Balancing Chemical Equations

Unit 4: The Mole Concept

  • 4-1  The Mole and Molar Mass
  • 4-2  Mole Concept for Elements
  • 4-3  Mole Concept for Molecules and Compounds
  • 4-4  Molecular and Empirical Formula
  • 4-5  Stiochiometry

Unit 5: Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

  • 5-1  Bond Energy and the Types of Reactions
  • 5-2  Heat of Reaction
  • 5-3  Spontaneous and Non-Spontaneous Reactions

Unit 6: Reaction Rate

  • 6-1  Reaction Rate and Factors Affecting it.
  • 6-2  Reaction Rate and Collision Theory
  • 6-3  Measuring Reaction Rates
  • 6-4  Catalysts and Reaction Rates
  • 6-5  Chemical Equilibrium

Unit 7: Nuclear Processes

  • 7-1  Nuclear Structure and Radiation
  • 7-2  Types of Radiation
  • 7-3  Half-Life
  • 7-4  Sources of Radiation
  • 7-5  Dangers and Uses of Radiation
  • 7-6  Nuclear Fission
  • 7-7  Nuclear Fusion
  • 7-8  Nucleosynthesis

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NGSS High School Physical Sciences Standards:

1-1 Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.

1-2 Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.

1-3 Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.

1-4 Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.

1-5 Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.

1-6 Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.

1-7 Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

1-8 Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.

Next Generation Science Standards Chemistry Curriculum Map

UnitLesson OutlineHS-PS
Unit 1:

Structure and Properties of Matter

 

1-1          Atoms and Molecules

1-2          The Kinetic Molecular Theory and Properties of Matter

1-3          Models of an Atom

1-4          Atomic Structure

1-5          Isotopes

1-6          Electron Configuration

1-7          The Periodic Table of Elements

 

1-1

1-2

1-3

Unit 2:

Chemical Reactions

 

 

2-1          Atomic Combinations

2-2          Covalent Bonding

2-3          Ionic Bonding

2-4          Metallic Bonding

2-5          Writing Chemical Formula

2-6          Molecular Shape and the VSEPR Theory

 

1-1

1-2

1-4

Unit 3:

Changes in Matter

 

3-1          Physical and Chemical Change

3-2          Conservation of Energy in Chemical Reactions

3-3          Conservation of Mass in Chemical Reactions

3-4          Law of Constant Composition

3-5          Chemical Change Representation

3-6          Balancing Chemical Equations

 

 

 

1-4

1-5

1-7

 

Unit 4:

The Mole Concept

 

4-1          The Mole and Molar Mass

4-2          Mole Concept for Elements

4-3          Mole Concept for Molecules and Compounds

4-4          Molecular and Empirical Formula

4-5          Stiochiometry

 

1-7

 

Unit 5:

Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

 

5-1          Bond Energy and the Types of Reactions

5-2          Heat of Reaction

5-3          Spontaneous and Non-Spontaneous Reactions

 

 

1-4

1-5

1-6

 

Unit 6:

Reaction Rate

 

6-1          Reaction Rate and Factors Affecting it.

6-2          Reaction Rate and Collision Theory

6-3          Measuring Reaction Rates

6-4          Catalysts and Reaction Rates

6-5          Chemical Equilibrium

 

1-4

1-5

1-6

 

Unit 7:

Nuclear Processes

 

7-1          Nuclear Structure and Radiation

7-2          Types of Radiation

7-3          Half-Life

7-4          Sources of Radiation

7-5          Dangers and Uses of Radiation

7-6          Nuclear Fission

7-7          Nuclear Fusion

7-8          Nucleosynthesis

 

1-8

 

NGSS Chemistry Pacing Guide

Unit : 1Structure and Properties of MatterNumber of Instructional Days
Common Core Standards CoveredKey ConceptsTotal:  32
1-1Atoms and Molecules              

HS-PS1-1.

·       Atoms are the simplest building block of matter.

·       Atoms bond together to form groups known as a molecule.

·       Molecules which contain different types of atoms are called compounds.

2
1-2The Kinetic Molecular Theory and the Properties of Matter

HS-PS1-3.

·       Arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gases

·       Properties relating to each state

·       States of matter are reliant on the forces between particles

·       Define the temperature of a substance as a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles.

·       Kinetic energy of each state of matter

·       Changes of state require energy to be added or removed.

4
1-3Models of an Atom

HS-PS1-1.

Outline the findings of:

·       Solid Sphere - Dalton

·       Plum Pudding Model - Thomson

·       Nuclear Model – Rutherford

·       Planetary Model – Bohr

·       Quantum Model –Schrodinger

Compare and contrast the models and identify key contributions to modern day atomic theory

5
1-4Atomic Structure

HS-PS1-1.

·       Atoms are made of a nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons.

·       Protons and electrons are oppositely charged.

·       An atom has the same number of protons and electrons to making its overall charge zero (neutral).

·       Formation of Ions

·       Flame testing and identification of positive and negative ions

6
1-5Isotopes

HS-PS1-1.

·       Isotopes are different forms of the same element.

·       Change in mass number while the number of protons and electrons (atomic number) remains the same.

·       Examples: Hydrogen, Carbon and Chlorine

4
1-6Electron Configuration

HS-PS1-1.

HS-PS1-2.

·       Arrangement of electrons in orbitals

·       First energy level is filled first - 1s orbital,

·       Second level, 2s and 2p orbital

·       Atoms are most stable when they have a full shell (reference to noble gases)

·

4
1-7The Periodic Table of Elements

HS-PS1-1.

HS-PS1-2.

·       As proposed by Mendelev

·       Elements are represented by symbols

·       Elements are sorted by atomic number starting with hydrogen.

·       Groups run vertically and show trends in properties (specific reference to Group I metals, Group II Alkali Earth Metals, Group 17 Halogens and Group 18 Noble Gases)

·       Transition metals

·       Rows determine the number of orbitals present

·       The ‘staircase’ separates metals and non-metals

 

7

 

Unit : 2Chemical ReactionsNumber of Instructional Days
Common Core Standards CoveredKey ConceptsTotal: 24
2-1Atomic Combinations              

HS-PS1-1.

HS-PS1-2.

HS-PS1-4

·       Atoms join together to form compounds

·       Different elements react, breaking and forming bonds

·       Forming bonds requires atoms giving, taking or sharing electrons

·       The properties of the compound are often very different to the individual atoms in the compound.

2
2-2Covalent Bonding

HS-PS1-1.

HS-PS1-2.

·       Occurs between non-metals

·       Atoms share electrons in order to fill both outer (valence) shells

·       Properties of covalent molecules

·       Important examples: H2O, HCl, NH3, O2, CO2

·       Giant covalent structures e.g. Graphite, Diamond

4
2-3Ionic Bonding

HS-PS1-1.

HS-PS1-2.

·       Forms from a metal (positive ion) losing it electron(s) and a non-metal (negative ion) gaining electron(s)

·       Occurs to fill (or empty) the atoms valence shell

·       Properties of Ionic compounds

·       Ionic compounds occur as giant molecular lattices

·       Compounds have strong electrostatic forces holding them together

·       Important examples: NaCl, NaOH

6
2-4Metallic Bonding

HS-PS1-1.

HS-PS1-2.

 

·       Involves free electrons which produce the properties of unique to metals

·       Outline the properties of metals

·       Electrons free to move through the structure to allow conduction of electricity, malleability etc

·       Electrons hold the metal together in a fixed shape through strong electrostatic forces.

·       Alloys are mixtures which make the new metal harder than the original elements.

·       Examples of alloys used in industry

6
2-5Writing Chemical Formula

HS-PS1-1.

HS-PS1-2.

 

·       Shows the type and number of atoms in a substance

·       Use of subscript numbers

·       Cancellation of charges (ionic formula)

·       Use of brackets

·       Correct naming conventions e.g. –ate, -ide, etc.

4
2-6Molecular Shape and VESPR Theory

HS-PS1-1.

HS-PS1-2.

HS-PS1-4

·       Electron pairs in bonds and lone pairs repel thus adopting the specific geometric shapes so that electron pairs are as far apart as possible.

·       Linear (180o) E.g. CO2

·       Bent (119.3o) E.g. SO2

·       Trigonal pyramidal (106.7o) E.g. NH3

·       Trigonal Planar (120o) E.g. BCl3

·       T-shaped (86.2o) E.g. BrF3

2

 

Unit : 3Changes in MatterNumber of Instructional Days
Common Core Standards CoveredKey ConceptsTotal: 22
3-1Physical and Chemical Change

HS-PS1-4

HS-PS1-5

 

·       Chemical change – permanent, involving new substances being made, indicated by color change, smell

·       Physical Change – requires adding or removing heat to cause a change in state.

·       Physical changes are reversible

·       Identify chemical and physical change from experiments

·       Examples of chemical and physical Change

4
3-2Conservation of Energy in Chemical Reactions

HS-PS1-4

HS-PS1-5

HS-PS1-7

 

·       Chemical reactions involve energy which is used to break bonds in reactants.

·       Energy is released when new bonds form in products.

·       Endothermic reactions absorb energy

·       Exothermic reactions release energy.

·       The law of conservation of energy – matter cannot be created or destroyed

2
3-3Conservation of Mass in Chemical Reactions

HS-PS1-6.

HS-PS1-7.

·       Mass is always conserved in a chemical reaction, due to no atoms being created or destroyed

·       Same number and types of atoms will be present in the reactants as well as the products

·       Adding up relative formula masses on both sides of the equation to observe the conservation of mass.

·       Calculating mass in reactions

·       Using simplest ratios

4
3-4Law of Constant Composition

HS-PS1-5

HS-PS1-7.

 

·       Also known as Proust's law or the law of definite composition

·       A given chemical compound always contains its component elements in fixed ratio (by mass) and does not depend on its source and method of preparation.

2
3-5Chemical Change Representation

HS-PS1-7.

 

6 types of chemic al reactions

·       Synthesis

·       Combustion

·       Decomposition

·       Single displacement

·       Double displacement

·       Acid-base

6
3-6Balancing Chemical Equations

HS-PS1-7

 

·       Placing numbers in from of the compounds (stiochiometric coefficients)

·       Balancing one type of atom at a time

·       Reactants equal products

4

 

Unit : 4The Mole ConceptNumber of Instructional Days
Common Core Standards CoveredKey ConceptsTotal: 18
4-1The Mole and Molar Mass

HS-PS1-7

 

·       Defining the mole as: One mole of a substance equals its Mr in grams

·       Defining Avogadro number

·       One mole of gas occupies a volume of 24dm3

·       Finding Relative atomic mass (Ar)

·       Calculating Relative formula mass (Mr

·       Number of moles = mass of substance (grams)/Mr

 

4
4-2Mole Concept for Elements

HS-PS1-7

 

·       Number of moles = mass of element (grams)/Mr

·       Calculating percentage mass of elements in compounds

4
4-3Mole Concept for Molecules and Compounds

HS-PS1-7.

·       Number of moles = mass of compound (grams)/Mr

 

2
4-4Molecular and Empirical Formula

HS-PS1-7.

 

·       Calculating empirical formulas from masses or percentages

 

2
4-5Stoichiometry

HS-PS1-7.

 

·       Using relationships between reactants and/or products in a chemical reaction to determine desired quantitative data

·       Mass spectrometry and Relative isotopic abundance

·       Formula mass calculations

·       Percentage yield calculations

6

 

Unit : 5Energy Changes in Chemical ReactionsNumber of Instructional Days
Common Core Standards CoveredKey ConceptsTotal: 14
5-1Bond Energy and the Types of Reactions

HS-PS1-4

HS-PS1-5

HS-PS1-6

 

·       Calculating bond energy

·       Calculating overall energy change of a reaction

·       -/+DH linked to energy released or absorbed

·       Endothermic vs. exothermic reactions

 

6
5-2Heat of Reaction

HS-PS1-4

HS-PS1-5

HS-PS1-6

 

·       Enthalpy of a reaction

·       Enthalpy = internal energy  + pressure x volume

·       Effect of temperature and pressure on enthalpy

·       Energy level diagrams – interpretation and drawing

 

4
5-3Spontaneous and Non-Spontaneous Reactions

HS-PS1-4

HS-PS1-5

HS-PS1-6

 

·       Entropy

·       Spontaneous reactions (exothermic reactions) are favored when they result in a decrease in enthalpy and an increase in entropy of the system. Energy is released to the surroundings as heat.

·       Non-spontaneous reactions (endothermic reactions), decreases the entropy.

 

4

 

Unit : 6Reaction RateNumber of Instructional Days
Common Core Standards CoveredKey ConceptsTotal: 30
6-1Reaction Rate and Factors Affecting It

HS-PS1-4

HS-PS1-5

HS-PS1-6

 

Reaction rate is affected by changes in:

·       Temperature

·       Catalysts

·       Concentration or pressure

·       Surface area

 

 

8
6-2Reaction Rate and the Collision Theory

HS-PS1-4

HS-PS1-5

HS-PS1-6

 

·       Particles are in constant motion

·       Reactions occur when particles collide with sufficient force and in the correct orientation.

2
6-3Measuring Reaction Rates

HS-PS1-4

HS-PS1-5

HS-PS1-6

 

Reaction rate = amount of reaction used or product formed/ time

Observations of:

·       Precipitation

·       Change in mass

·       Volume of gas given off

8
6-4Catalysts and Reaction Rates

HS-PS1-4

HS-PS1-5

HS-PS1-6

 

·       Does not participate in reaction

·       Specific

·       Reduces energy requirement

·       Increases number of successful collisions

2
6-5Chemical Equilibrium

HS-PS1-4

HS-PS1-5

HS-PS1-6

 

·       The rate of a reversible reaction in a closed system

·       Occurs when the forward and backward reactions occur at the same rate.

·       As reactants react concentration of these falls so forward reaction slows down.

·       Equilibrium position right vs. left based on the amounts of reactants and products

·       Factors which change equilibrium – temperature, pressure, concentration

·       The Haber process as an example of equilibrium

·       Using equilibrium tables and graphs

 

10

 

Unit : 7Nuclear ProcessesNumber of Instructional Days
Common Core Standards CoveredKey ConceptsTotal: 22
7-1Nuclear Structure and Radiation

HS-PS1-8

 

·       Unstable nuclei release particles

·       Ionisation

 

1
7-2Types of Radiation

HS-PS1-8

 

Compare and contrast types of radiation

·       Alpha (helium nuclei)

·       Beta (electrons)

·       Gamma (short wavelength EM waves)

·       Balancing nuclear equations

·       Materials which block radiation

·       Effects of magnetic fields on radiation

6
7-3Half-Life

HS-PS1-8

 

·       Defined as the average time taken to halve the number of radioactive nuclei in an isotope

·       Short vs. long half-life

·       Calculating number of half lives in a sample

·       Finding half-life using a graph

 

5
7-4Sources of Radiation

HS-PS1-8

 

·       Unstable Isotopes

·       Space

·       Human activity (nuclear fallout)

·       Background radiation

2
7-5Dangers and Uses of Radiation

HS-PS1-8

 

Dangers:

·       Harms living tissue

Uses:

·       Smoke detectors

·       Medical tracers

·       Sterilisation

·       X-Rays

·       Radioactive dating

·       Radiotherapy/cancer treatment

·       Power stations

2
7-6Nuclear Fission

HS-PS1-8

 

·       Splitting/subdivision of nuclei into two nuclei of roughly even mass.

·       Occurs in nuclear reactors

2
7-7Nuclear Fusion

HS-PS1-8

 

·       Joining of two or more nuclei together

·       Requirements of a fusion reaction

·       Occurs in stars

·       Comparison with fission reaction

2
7-8Nucleosynthesis

HS-PS1-8

 

·       New nuclei formed from pre-existing nuclei

·       Big Bang theory

 

2

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